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Jazz elements into his famous musical, Many bands toured the country in grueling one-night stands. The swing era took place during which two important historical events? [14][12][13] [15][16][17][18], Twenty-first century big bands can be considerably larger than their predecessors, exceeding 20 players, with some European bands using 29 instruments and some reaching 50. The band features selections mostly from the swing era, with a dose of 50's Sinatra and 60's hipsters. [32] They experiment, often with one player coming up with a simple musical figure leading to development within the same section and then further expansion by other sections, with the entire band then memorizing the way they are going to perform the piece, without writing it on sheet music. He was a pianist, accompanist, and music director for blues singers, dancers, and comedians. Special thanks to Dr. Portia K. Maultsby and to the Advisory Scholars for their commitment and thought-provoking contributions to this resource. [52], Schuller, Gunther. The Ellington orchestra succeeded in part through the expert use and contribution of consistently talented and unique players. Others challenged him, and battle of the bands became a regular feature of theater performances. leaders in America. : The rhythmic phenomenon of "swing" feeling is The International Sweethearts of Rhythm, the first multiethnic all-female swing band, formed in 1937 at Piney Woods County Life School, Mississippi. The Henderson band is considerably larger than most syncopated dance bands of the 1920s (eight or nine musicians). Here are the five most common swing band instruments, and how they commonly fit into swing music. the late 1930s through the 1950s, Duke Ellington was one of the premier swing band Ra's eclectic music was played by a roster of musicians from ten to thirty and was presented as theater, with costumes, dancers, and special effects.[1]. Since theyre built of brass, saxophones tend to produce a trumpet-like buzzing sound. - jukebox Which changes occurred in the rhythm section during the 1930s? Swing Shift: All Girl Bands of the 1940s. And because of this, Swing had a greater emphasis on written-out composition and arrangements. California. the following instruments: The ways. Count Basie played a relaxed, propulsive swing, Bob Crosby (brother of Bing), more of a dixieland style,[39] Benny Goodman a hard driving swing, and Duke Ellington's compositions were varied and sophisticated. more traditional instruments such as horn, cello, flute and oboe. and the Lincoln Center Jazz In the late 1990s, there was a swing revival in the U.S. Dance bands had made phonograph records since the days of ragtime. here to see a YouTube video on "swing" groove vs. other types of Sweet Swing (people like Glenn Miller) had less improvisation, was a bit slower, restrained with a slight swing feel, and was for the white upper class dinner parties. Arrangers notated specific notes for each instrument to play in every measure on a written score. [37] As jazz migrated from its New Orleans origin to Chicago and New York City, energetic, suggestive dances traveled with it. of jazz From Another interesting and important development happened with Swing improvisation. Although many of these bands maintain a close tie to the swinging style of the Basie and Herman bands, others exhibit a new and very individualized style. Henderson and arranger Don Redman followed the template of King Oliver, but as the 1920s progressed they moved away from the New Orleans format and transformed jazz. Loops are played at 120 and 125 bpm. L6G9MTRv&hVSOC9Y)~06CW)j#8qE#C?YOK%d\SC9IT~U {J;F\m`F># a) Henderson's big band comprises five brass instruments (three trumpets and two trombones), four reed instruments (saxophones and clarinets), and a rhythm section consisting of piano, bass, A large string instrument with an extremely low pitch, the Double Bass is a staple of most swing bands. [26], Typical big band arrangements from the swing era were written in strophic form with the same phrase and chord structure repeated several times. Walter Page is often credited with developing the walking bass,[38] though earlier examples exist, such as Wellman Braud on Ellington's Washington Wabble from 1927. It began as an intensified rhythmic outgrowth of the black Rhythm & His music uses Eastern rhythms, meters, and advanced rhythmic techniques. endstream endobj startxref The Other renowned vocalists are blues singers Jimmy Rushing with You Can Depend on Me and Joe Williamss Roll Em Pete, featured with the Count Basie Orchestra, whose repertoire included ballads, jazz and pop standards. The trumpet section included four trumpets; the first was responsible for the highest notes. It was all about showmanship which is epitomised by people like Cab Calloway and Fats Waller. sense means to merge styles together. A ballad is a simple song, usually romantic in nature, and uses the same melody for each stanza. It was mostly performed by Big Bands, which were large orchestras divided into trumpets, saxophones, trombones, and a rhythm section (which consisted of the drums, bass, guitar and piano). The size could be anywhere from about 12 to 30 players. emerged as piano was added to the rhythm section, and a stronger driving rhythm of American jazz. II. Guiding Principals. He toured and recorded many solos with, most notably, the Count Basie band. In the early 1950s a smoother, more A versatile instrument, the saxophone is swing musics version of the Holy Trinity (celery, bell peppers and onions) used in Gumbo. Hot Swing (people like Duke Ellington) was more daring, experimental, faster, with longer improvisations, stronger rhythmic drive, and a rough blues feeling. The 194244 musicians' strike worsened the situation. Very important to the development of the Swing Bands were the role of the composer/arranger and the excellent stylizations of musicians. This was in part due to a political organization called the Pendergast Machine which encouraged a nightclub atmosphere. He received his BA in Political Science from the University of Chicago and an M.A. A drummer, bass player (string bass), piano player, and guitarist formed the rhythm section. clarinetist Benny GOODMAN and Although Coast" Cool Jazz emerged, using Casa Loma Stomp marked the first recording of this emerging style in 1930. The trumpeter blows on the mouthpiece at one end of the trumpet with closed lips, and the sound wave reverberates through the tube until it exits out the widened far end of the instrument. By the 1930s, these and other cities became major centers for the development of the swing style. Woody Herman's first band, nicknamed the First Herd, borrowed from progressive jazz, while the Second Herd emphasized the saxophone section of three tenors and one baritone. - One of the most common forms used in jazz A. Rolfe, Anna Mae Winburn, and Ina Ray Hutton.[35]. This type of music flourished through the early 1930s, although there was little mass audience for it until around 1936. interacts with the bass and drums, and how the beat is divided up in complex During the swing era, popular, blues, and jazz vocalists were essential to big band performances. Ive listed someSwing Era Jazz musicians below. Bridging the gap to white audiences in the mid-1930s was the Casa Loma Orchestra and Benny Goodman's early band. While the trumpet is commonly featured in a swing band, a saxophone is also often used to enhance melodies. - the tuba was replaced the string bass - the banjo was replaced the guitar - (a&c on test) Explain your opinion in a book review. Nostalgia for the Big Band style has kept it alive today. Vocalists began to strike out on their own. Ellington expanded Armstrong's small From the late 1930s through the 1950s, Duke Ellington was one of the premier swing band leaders in America. Maria Schneider assisted Gil Evans, wrote for Woody Herman and Mel Lewis, and has conducted jazz orchestras around the world. premiered George GERSHWIN's Rhapsody in Blue and kicked off an in its strictest He would conduct his band from his drum set. - The ANDREWS SISTERS: The Boogie-Woogie Bugle Boy The moral? The major "black" bands of the 1930s included, apart from Ellington's, Hines's and Calloway's, those of Jimmie Lunceford, Chick Webb, and Count Basie. Print, p. 226, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Ellingtonians salute swing era clarinets", Discography of American Historical Recordings: Charles Magnante's Accordion Quartette with guitar and string bass on, "Leone Jump; Swing Low, Sweet Chariot; The Jazz Me Blues; Nursery Rhymes", Discography of American Historical Recordings- John Serrapica (aka John Serry) as a member of the Charles Magnante Accordion Quartette with guitar and string bass on, "JazzTimes 10: Great Modern Big-Band Recordings", "Difference Between Music Composer & Arranger", "Composer Maria Schneider Returns, With A Reckoning, On 'Data Lords', "Billy Strayhorn's Lush Life Beyond Duke Ellington", "Big Band Arranging: for composers, orchestrators and arrangers: 16, Solos and Backgrounds", "Inside the Score in the 21st Century: Techniques for Contemporary Large Jazz Ensemble Composition", "1910s Pop Trend: The Ragtime Dance Craze", "George Robert Crosby Bandleader, Vocalist, Actor, Radio/TV Host", "Sounds of Hot Jazz Stay Warm: Harry James Band to Play at the Mission", "Chapter 11. So the Swing Era was during the Depression and it acted as a kind of counter-statement or rebellion against the unemployment and misery that the Depression caused. an important catalyst in the socio-political and artistic transformation of II era. [22] Some bandleaders, such as Guy Lombardo, performed works composed by others (in Lombardo's case, often by his brother Carmen),[23] while others, such as Maria Schneider, take on all three roles. completely abandoned the song's melody, which has made this style less (1937). and His Mother Called Him Bill, featured "Blood Count" and "Lotus Blossom," was a tribute album to . Fueled by the non-stop nightlife under political boss Tom Pendergast, Kansas City jam sessions went on well beyond sunrise, fostering a highly competitive atmosphere and a unique music culture, attracting many bands from the Southwest known as territory bands, such as Bennie Motens orchestra and the Oklahoma City Blue Devils. endstream endobj 1558 0 obj <>stream art form--a unique blending of West African and Western European/American They had the Blue Devils. Ornette Coleman in the 1960s. The style features prominent horn riffs, call and response between the brass and reed sections, and a consistent rhythmic drive derived from walking and/or boogie-woogie-type bass lines. When you mentioned the word Jazz to the average person, they probably think of Swing music, and for good reason. This approach was then further expanded upon by Bebop, which largely abandoned the original melody of the song to create brand new melodies based on an established chord progression this was known as a contrafact. The Lindy Hop became popular again and young people took an interest in big band styles again. the following instruments: In 1925, bandleader Paul Whiteman Guitar, Organ, Banjo), - One or more solo The popular appeal of Benny Goodman's Trio and Quartet had a good deal to do with the extroverted energy of. In 1927, he taught music at Manassas High School in Memphis and organized a student jazz band. Basie, Count. "[34][35] Head arrangements were more common during the period of the 1930s because there was less turnover in personnel, giving the band members more time to rehearse. Radio increased the fame of Benny Goodman, the "Pied Piper of Swing". John Coltrane's "hard bop" of Western swing musicians also formed popular big bands during the same period. Bandleaders dealt with these obstacles through rigid discipline (Glenn Miller) and canny psychology (Duke Ellington). The bands led by Helen Lewis, Ben Bernie, and Roger Wolfe Kahn's band were filmed by Lee de Forest in his Phonofilm sound-on-film process in 1925, in three short films which are in the Library of Congress film collection. I am Joaqun/Yo Soy Joaqun was first published in 1967. Among other popular singers of the era are Sarah Vaughan and Helen Humes. New York in the late 1920s. For this reason the pianists left hand generally just played chords on the beat; while his right hand built rhythmic patterns around chords and chord tone, and especially guide tone often just playing arpeggios or simple bluesy licks. daring arrangements of classic jazz tunes. But there were a few instrumental popular hits, such as Count Basie's "One O'Clock Jump" and Miller's "In the Mood." 3. characterized by independent instrumental lines, massive harmonic dissonance, During the 1930s, Earl Hines and his band broadcast from the Grand Terrace in Chicago every night across America. This would go back and forth a number of times. The swing era was the one time that jazz was a truly popular style. [36]:p.31, Before 1910, social dance in America was dominated by steps such as the waltz and polka. below to see YouTube performance clips), - (1899-1974): The performing at the same time." By the late 1930s, prosperity was returning, and records and radio were extremely helpful in publicizing jazz. The latter included blues, ballads, novelty songs, and Broadway tunes. When the tradition came back full-circle into vocal jazz with a And this is where the term head comes from, meaning the original melody of the song that is, its all in your head, not written down on paper. Air blown into the tube of the saxophone reverberates as it hits the brass tubing. Swing bands featured orchestras with sections of trumpets, saxophones, and. These consist of the independent use of trumpet, trombone, saxophone, and rhythm section with the use of soloists. Whiteman was educated in classical music, and he called his new band's music symphonic jazz. Kansas City was busy with musical activity from the early 1920s to about 1938. As jazz was expanded during the 1950s through the 1970s, the Basie and Ellington bands were still around, as were bands led by Buddy Rich, Gene Krupa, Lionel Hampton, Earl Hines, Les Brown, Clark Terry, and Doc Severinsen. Three bypass valves over the tube can be used to lower the pitch of the trumpet. African American big band arrangers such as Fletcher Henderson and Eddie Durham were major contributors to the success of white bandleaders such as Benny Goodman, Artie Shaw, and Glen Miller. [1][2] The division in early big bands, from the 1920s to 1930s, was typically two or three trumpets, one or two trombones, three or four saxophones, and a rhythm section of four instruments. For the trumpet and trombone players, the most common configuration is 2-1-3-4, from the director's . The International Sweethearts of Rhythm became known for its strong riffing brass section, heavy percussion, rhythmic sensibility, and dynamic blues playing heard in Jump Children.. Concert They provide the base, the foundation on which the rest of the music can thrive. [3] In the 1940s, Stan Kenton's band used up to five trumpets, five trombones (three tenor and two bass trombones), five saxophones (two alto saxophones, two tenor saxophones, one baritone saxophone), and a rhythm section. Her version of the nursery rhyme A-Tisket, A-Tasket (1938) brought her international fame. Good Morning Blues: The Autobiography of Count Basie. Daniels, Douglas. The Big Bands of swing were only able to acquire one-night stand performances and consequently suffered financially. '20s," "HOT" JAZZ exemplifies many of the most innovative aspects of this new jazz style: (1) It They were knowledgeable and often biased toward their favorite bands and songs, and sometimes worshipful of famous soloists and vocalists. NY: Penguin Books:1977. The group emphasized correct technique and accurate playing and released its first recording in 1930. 3. Big bands originated during the early 1910s and dominated jazz in the early 1940s when swing was most popular. In the late 1960s, Jazz trumpeter Miles Swing bands featured sections of trumpets, saxophones, and . - trombones The invention of ______ helped the record industry to recover in the mid-1930s. to jazz, 1560 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<10C156E632F2BA46ADA9AD0651C7900F><95985AC68A5B3B44A7FED2E54018B539>]/Index[1554 17]/Info 1553 0 R/Length 52/Prev 145355/Root 1555 0 R/Size 1571/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream an improvisation: melody, harmony, and form. Fish, Scott K. Duke Ellington vs Chick Webb: We Tore Them Up, Man. March 1, 2016. The term "big band" is also used to describe a genre of music, although this was not the only style of music played by big bands. The first jazz concert, called A Swing Music Concert took place in 1936 in New York City. Swing is an outgrowth of the 1920s big band traditions in Chicago, Kansas City, and New York City. Swing is sandwiched between two huge historical events. Holiday crossed musical genres, singing jazz, blues, and pop while keeping her individual singing style. Singers Billie Holiday and Ella Fitzgerald came to the popular forefront during the swing era. The saxophone section included two alto saxophones, two tenor saxophones, and one baritone saxophone. The repertoire of swing bands featured both jazz and popular arrangements. Jazz vocalists during this era were highly influenced by horn players. Jazz Big Band Arrangements. As swing developed, the second player became responsible for most of the jazz solos. virtuosity. of the most creative composers in the history of jazz, particularly renowned Click here for a FREE preview of The Classic Swing Bands newest CD Ballroom Dance Favorites.. He toured in many parts of the world and was also commissioned to record classical compositions. A general format emerged from the creation of a swing jazz arrangement. Swing music ruled the airwaves and the dance floors throughout the 1930s to the mid-40s, and the artists that led swing bands became internationally beloved celebrities. Theyre noticeable, but not overwhelming. Many swing-era compositions were written by professional songwriters employed by song publishing companies. Tucker, Sherrie. They refuse to look for new ideas and new outlets, so they fall by the waysideIm going to try to find out the new ideas before the others do., I stole everything I ever heard, but mostly I stole from the horns.. 20th-century popular music and culture. How relevant do you believe the poem is today? Foremost, they accentuated the movement of choreographed dancers. In the 1950s, a smooth style of "West In Harlem, the creative and literary arts, Black musicals, and big band entertainment flourished within the movement known as the Harlem Renaissance, in which music played as great or possibly a greater role than literature. Orchestra. techniques (from native African musical tradition in which a leader does a Fletcher Henderson's career started when he was persuaded to audition for a job at Club Alabam in New York City, which eventually turned into a job as bandleader at the Roseland Ballroom. Short, repeated refrains or phrases, or riffs, are common in jazz. Swing music began appearing in the early 1930s and was distinguished by a more supple feel than the more literal 44 of early jazz. Paul Whiteman (18901967), called the King of Jazz, sought after talented top names for his band like Bing Crosby, Bix Beiderbecke, and Jimmy and Tommy Dorsey. Steve Zegree; sax: Trent Kynaston; bass: Tom Knific; drums: Tim Froncek). The "white" bands of Benny Goodman, Artie Shaw, Tommy Dorsey, Shep Fields and, later, Glenn Miller were more popular than their "black" counterparts from the middle of the decade. out of tune) notes, (4) and even a section with Armstrong's famous "scat Big bands uplifted morale during World War II. She recorded with various jazz orchestras, including her own (Long Gone Blues, 1939) and those led by Benny Goodman (Your Mothers Son-in-Law, 1933) and Teddy Wilson (Sugar, 1939). Billie Holiday is considered to be the most influential of the jazz singers of the century after Louis Armstrong, who influenced her style. They had Count Basie, they had Benny Moten, they had George Lee, they had Junior Lee, they had Lester Young, they had Walter Brown., What I heard in that first nine-piece Basie band was the sort of free, swinging jazz that I have always preferred. The invention of ______ helped the record industry to recover in the mid-1930s. Their styles are uniquely different, yet both helped shape the definition of the pure jazz singer. Swing as Popular Music 1. YouTube clip with basic piano chords). Many of the great swing bands broke up, as the times and tastes changed. introduction, the main theme, and four varied improvised choruses. Many bands from the swing era continued for decades after the death or departure of their founders and namesakes, and some are still active in the 21st century, often referred to as "ghost bands", a term attributed to Woody Herman, referring to orchestras that persist in the absence of their original leaders. (click Yes drums are like the Roux or Fil in Gumbo. Instead of just embellishing the melody, he created a whole new melody based on the songs harmony by arpeggiating the chords and adding further chord alterations and substitutions to make his solo more complex. The Glenn Miller used a clarinet over his saxophone for identification. Art-music composer/conductor Leonard There was a quality to her voice that fascinated me, and Id sing along with her, trying to catch the subtle ways she shaded her voice, the casual yet clean way she sang the words., A lot of singers think all they have to do is exercise their tonsils to get ahead. Da Capo Reprint Paperback, 1973. - Some of the Piano techniques employed during the Swing Era were: A good example of this is the Count Basie song Kansas City Keys. This lineup was typical of swing era bands. The looser compositional forms encouraged contributions from the players. For the sentence below, write prepositional phrase and underline the preposition. And there were also 2 different styles of Swing music. Armstrong (nicknamed The lyrics kept within these traditions. 1554 0 obj <> endobj By this time the big band was such a dominant force in jazz that the older generation found they either had to adapt to it or simply retire. Jazz orchestras were necessary for the shows and musicals, and well-trained musicians were highly valued. The saxophone section included two alto saxophones, two tenor saxophones, and one baritone saxophone. This expansive eclecticism characterized much of jazz after World War II. In the 1960s and 1970s, big band rock became popular by integrating such musical ingredients as progressive rock experimentation, jazz fusion, and the horn choirs often used in blues and soul music, with some of the most prominent groups including Chicago; Blood, Sweat and Tears; Tower of Power; and, from Canada, Lighthouse. His famous recording Body and Soul, recorded in 1939, is known for its continuous smooth sound. ARMSTRONG took "Hot" Jazz to Chicago, where its popularity grew Most swing was performed by Big Bands, which were literally big bands, divided into trumpets, saxophones, trombones, and a rhythm section consisting mostly of drums, bass, guitar, and piano. projected in the way the drums and bass express the beat, how the piano ragtime New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. IMPORTANT MUSICIANS: Louis Armstrong (cornet/trumpet), Bix Beiderbecke (cornet), Jelly Roll Morton (piano/composer), Sidney Bechet (soprano sax, clarinet), Earl "Fatha" Hines (piano) Swing/Big Band Era (1930-1945) highly improvisatory style called Bebop, Modern big bands can be found playing all styles of jazz music. Which white swing clarinetist and bandleader, who spent as much of his early career as he could in Harlem, once said, "I was actually leading the life of a Negro musician"? Swing was the predominant style of jazz music played from the late 1920s to mid-1940s. jw7(W3;TEd5SOBmlyb./hh IOQ,+B}I\fT-q\ dJ(0!GF>B)- |0~J;:AC*: Y3[.(&=>:UU5aH@ZLLEc))3c.mcX=ia&1cy]aE~9CB7L_ Kansas City, in particular, became a wide-open town totally ingrained in the entertainment business. Trumpet image courtesy: PJ via Wikimedia Commons, Saxophone image courtesy: via Wikimedia Commons, Keyboard image courtesy: Eurotuber via Wikimedia Commons, Double Bass image courtesy: David Price via Wikimedia Commons, Drum set image courtesy: Pbroks13 via Wikimedia Commons, Gumbo image courtesy: Amadscientist via Wikimedia Commons, For more than 10 years, The Classic Swing Band of Dallas has offered the best in live entertainment. Orleans musicians begin to consolidate the drum section (bass, snare, cymbals) commonly found in early New Orleans brass bands. Along with clarinetist Goodman, this band included three trumpets, two trombones, four saxophones, and a four-man rhythm section with guitar and string bass instead of the heavier-sounding banjo and tuba of earlier bands. Here are the five most common swing band instruments, and how they commonly fit into swing music. and Benny Goodman (who took jazz to Hollywood in the mid-1930s). Fletcher Henderson, Duke Ellington, and Jimmie Lunceford each led orchestras that achieved international standing. So lets quickly take a look at all three genres: Lets dive into these characteristics of Swing Music a little deeper:
", One of the most common forms used in jazz Among all the jazz vocalists that followed, most cite her as having the most influence on their scatting style. It is usually played by big band ensembles that use a rhythm section with drums, bass, sometimes a guitar, and almost always a piano, a brass section of trumpets and trombones, and a reed section of saxophones and clarinets. During the 1960s and '70s, Sun Ra and his Arketstra took big bands further out. 1920s as a blending of blues, ragtime, and civic brass band traditions, then this Carnegie Halls interactive Timeline of African American Music is dedicated to the loving memory of the late soprano and recitalist Jessye Norman. hbbd``b`:$g@Hp,@,Fb 0 O3 The Classic Swing Band from Dallas uses this very instrument in every show!! Thats intentional; the individual style of each swing band is what makes the music unique, much as the seasoning used in a particular Gumbo can make it one of a kind. In the Tenor saxophonist Lester Young (19091959) had a different approach than Hawkins and used a lighter tone. BERNSTEIN also incorporated Cool collectively . The embellishments gradually became more adventurous, but they were generally always played with the melody in mind. A distinctly new genre appeared in the late 1930s that to some degree bridged the differences between big band swing and bebop combos, and this was West Indian influenced music. 0 An Autobiography: John Hammond on Record with Irvin Townsend. harmony. Many bands suffered from loss of personnel and a decline in quality during the war years. Benny Goodman (19091986) was a superior clarinetist who began appearing on stage by the age of twelve. In the mid-1930s and early 1940s, Transcontinental trips often required a stop in one of these cities.

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